br Paclitaxel has been used as frontline chemotherapeutic agent
Paclitaxel has been used as frontline chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer; however, recent studies have pointed that paclitaxel exacerbate breast cancer metastasize to lung, although the underlying mechanism are still unclear [38,39]. In our study, we combined MPT0G211 with paclitaxel in cell migration assay, it showed that the combination therapy significantly inhibited breast cancer migration (Fig. 2A). Furthermore, in mouse (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate model, the combination of MPT0G211 with paclitaxel caused more significant reductions in the number of tumor nodules (Fig. 6A).
Taken together, this study demonstrates that MPT0G211, a novel and potent HDAC6 inhibitor, suppresses TNBC metastasis by inhibiting HDAC6 activity and not only increasing Hsp90 acetylation to promote aurora-A degradation and inhibit the cofilin–F-actin pathway, but also by inhibiting cortactin/F-actin binding and thus impairing cell motility. These results suggest that MPT0G211 may be a useful option for cancer treatment.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
The Transparency document associated this article can be found, in online version.
Appendix A. Supplementary data
 C.L. Arteaga, M.X. Sliwkowski, C.K. Osborne, E.A. Perez, F. Puglisi, L. Gianni, Treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: current status and future perspectives,
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Journal of Functional Foods
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jff
Anti-pancreatic-cancer eﬀect of a newly bred cabbage line, Amtak- T
ssamchae, is mediated by a reduction in regulatory-T-cell recruitment
Sunggun Kima,1, Soo Jeong Kimb,1, Eun-Sang Joa, Kicheol Gilb, Na-Yeon Kima, Ji Sung Parkc, Dongbok Parkc, So-Young Parka, , Kwang Woo Hwangb,
a College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, 119 Dandae-ro, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 31116, Republic of Korea
b College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Republic of Korea
Regulatory T cell β-carotene Chemokine receptor
Chemokine receptor ligand
We aimed to investigate possible anticancer eﬀects of Amtak-ssamchae (a newly bred cabbage line containing more carotenoids) in an in vitro pancreatic-tumor cell model and an in vivo model (Panc02 cells). In an in vitro assay, Amtak-ssamchae significantly reduced the viability of Panc02 cells relative to normal ssamchae. Furthermore, an Amtak-ssamchae extract significantly reduced the tumor size in mice inoculated with Panc02 cells, and this eﬀect was accompanied by changes in the cell population in/near the tumor and spleen. Treatment with the extract of the new cabbage line blocked regulatory-T-cell recruitment, which is known as the main pathological mechanism of action of pancreatic cancer to avoid host immunity. Additionally, Amtak-ssamchae (not the normal line) contained β-carotene (at 27.9 ± 2.1 μg/g). Thus, we suggest that the Amtak-ssamchae extract could be a resource for natural supplements and functional foods for combating pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is defined as a malignant pancreatic tumor and has a high mortality rate because it can hardly be diagnosed before reaching an advanced stage (Oberstein & Olive, 2013; Siegel, Miller, & Jemal, 2015). It has been reported that suppression of the immune system in the host is important for the survival of PC cells (Bazhin, Bayry, Umansky, Werner, & Karakhanova, 2013; Morse, Hall, & Plate, 2009). The microenvironment of a pancreatic tumor is thought to be aﬀected by regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are a subpopulation of CD4+ T cells that express IL-2Rα-chain (CD25) and forkhead box P (FOXP3) and play an important role in the maintenance of immune tolerance to self and foreign antigens at peripheral sites by inhibiting T-cell responses (Fontenot, Gavin, & Rudensky, 2003; Shevach, 2011). The importance of Tregs in PC has been demonstrated not only in a mouse model of PC but also in human PC patients (Ghansah et al., 2013;